Soledad de Lemus Martín


I am an Associate Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Granada. I teach in the Degree in Psychology and in the Master in Psychology of Social Intervention. Throughout my academic career, my research has focused on the study of resistance and confrontation processes in unequal intergroup relations, as well as on the study of new forms of prejudice (sexism) and stereotyping. In my current research I focus on the analysis of cooperative intergroup relationships (alliances) from the perspective of advantaged and disadvantaged groups.

I have carried out research stays at Cardiff University (United Kingdom), University of Groningen (Holland), Jagellonian University (Poland) and Simon Fraser University (Canada).

Main interests

  • Analysis of intergroup cooperation relations between disadvantaged groups and between disadvantaged and advantaged groups (allies).
  • Implicit and explicit reactions of disadvantaged groups to threats to their social identity (resistance and coping).
  • Development of ambivalent sexism in childhood and adolescence.
  • Interventions to reduce sexism and gender stereotypes.


Training and professional career

2018 - Nowadays

Associate Professor

University of Granada


Assistant Professor

University of Granada


Postdoctoral Research Fellow

Cardiff University


PhD in Psychology

University of Granada



Bukowski, M., de Lemus, S., Potoczek, A., Sankaran, S., Petkanopoulou, K., Montañés Muro, M. P., … Tausch, N. (2024). United as one? Personal and social identity threats differentially predict cooperation and prejudice toward minorities. Self and Identity, 1–32.

Estevan-Reina, L., de Lemus, S., Megías, J. L., Radke, H. R. M., Becker, J. C., & McGarty, C. (2024). How do disadvantaged groups perceive allies? Women’s perceptions of men who confront sexism in an egalitarian or paternalistic way. European Journal of Social Psychology, 119.

Saxler, F. M., Dorrough, A. R., Froehlich, L., Block, K., Croft, A., Meeussen, L., Olsson, M., Schmader, T., Schuster, C., van Grootel, S., Van Laar, C., Atkinson, C., Benson-Greenwald, T., Birneanu, A., Cavojova, V., Cheryan, S., Lee Kai Chung, A., Danyliuk, I., Dar-Nimrod, I., … Martiny, S. E. (2024). Did Descriptive and Prescriptive Norms About Gender Equality at Home Change During the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Cross-National Investigation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.


Urbiola, A., Carmona-López, C., & de Lemus, S. (2023). Why, how and with whom? The impact of perceived ally motives on migrants’ support for collective actions. Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology5.

del Fresno-Díaz, A., Estevan-Reina, L., Sánchez-Rodríguez, A., Willis, G. B., & de Lemus, S. (2023). Fighting inequalities in times of pandemic: The role of politicized identities and interdependent self-construal in coping with economic threat. Journal of Community and Applied Psychology, 33(2), 436-453.

Olsson, M. I. T.van Grootel, S.Block, K.Schuster, C.Meeussen, L.Van Laar, C.Schmader, T.Croft, A.Sun, M. S.Ainsaar, M.Aarntzen, L.Adamus, M.Anderson, J.Atkinson, C.Avicenna, M.Bąbel, P.Barth, M.Benson-Greenwald, T. M.Maloku, E., … Martiny, S. E. (2023). Gender gap in parental leave intentions: Evidence from 37 countriesPolitical Psychology130

Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., Bosson, J. K., Jurek, P., Besta, T., Olech, M., Vandello, J. A., Bender, M., Dandy, J., Hoorens, V., Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., Mankowski, E., Venäläinen, S., Abuhamdeh, S., Agyemang, C. B., Akbaş, G., Albayrak-Aydemir, N., Ammirati, S., Anderson, J., Anjum, G., … Żadkowska, M. (2023). Gendered Self-Views Across 62 Countries: A Test of Competing Models. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 14(7), 808-824.

van Breen, J.A., de Lemus, S., Kuppens, T., Barreto, M., Spears, R. (2023). Extending the scope for resistance to gender-based devaluation. European Review of Social Psychology.

Potoczek, A., Bukowski, M., de Lemus, S., Jiménez-Moya, G., Rodríguez-López, A., & Jasko, K. (2023). Walk This Way: Ingroup Norms Determine Voting Intentions for Those Who Lack Sociopolitical Control. PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN, 49(5), 692-708.


Rodríguez-López, Á., de Lemus, S., Bukowski, M., Potoczek, A., & Fritsche, I. (2022). Political change as group-based control: Threat to personal control reduces the support for traditional political parties. PLoS ONE, 17(12): e0278743.


Navarro-Mantas, L., de Lemus, S., García-Sánchez, E., McGill, L., Hansen, N., & Megías, J. L. (2022). Defining power and agency in gender relations in El Salvador: Consequences for intimate partner violence and women’s mental health. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 867945. https:/

Jiménez-Moya, G., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., Spears, R., de Lemus, S., & Contreras, C. (2022). Dealing with (Legitimized) Inequality: The Role of Ingroup Support to Resist Social Disadvantage. Psykhe.

van Breen, J. A., de Lemus, S., Spears, R., & Kuppens, T. (2022). Counteracting subliminal cues that threaten national identity. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 61(1), 143-166.


de Lemus, S., & Estevan-Reina, L. (2021). Influence of sexist language on motivation and feelings of ostracism. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 36(1), 61–97.

Estevan-Reina, L., de Lemus, S., Megias, J. L., Kutlaca, M., Belmonte-Garcia, M., & Becker, J. (2021). Allies Against Sexism: The Impact of Men’s Egalitarian Versus Paternalistic Confrontation on Women’s Empowerment and Well-Being. SEX ROLES, 84(9–10), 536–553.

Bosson, J. K., Jurek, P., Vandello, J. A., Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., Olech, M., Besta, T., Bender, M., Hoorens, V., Becker, M., Timur Sevincer, A., Best, D. L., Safdar, S., Wlodarczyk, A., Zawisza, M., Zadkowska, M., Abuhamdeh, S., Badu Agyemang, C., Akbas, G., Albayrak-Aydemir, N., … Zukauskiene, R. (2021). Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations. JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY, 52(3), 231–258.

Navarro-Mantas, L., de Lemus, S., & Megias, J. L. (2021). Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in El Salvador. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, 27(15–16), 2927–2944.

van Breen, J. A., Goclowska, M. A., de Lemus, S., Baas, M., Kelleci, B., & Spears, R. (2021). Creativity for the Group: Distinctive Feminists Engage in Divergent Thinking When Acting on Behalf of Women. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE, 12(4), 461–470.

Navarro-Mantas, L., Velasquez, M. J., de Lemus, S., & Megias, J. L. (2021). Prevalence and Sociodemographic Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in El Salvador. JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 36(7–8), NP3547–NP3573.

van Breen, J. A., de Lemus, S., Spears, R., & Kuppens, T. (n.d.). Counteracting subliminal cues that threaten national identity. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY.


Estevan-Reina, L., de Lemus, S., & Megias, J. L. (2020). Feminist or Paternalistic: Understanding Men’s Motivations to Confront Sexism. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, 10.

Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., Besta, T., Bosson, J. K., Jurek, P., Vandello, J. A., Best, D. L., Wlodarczyk, A., Safdar, S., Zawisza, M., Zadkowska, M., Sobiecki, J., Agyemang, C. B., Akbas, G., Ammirati, S., Anderson, J., Anjum, G., Aruta, J. J. B. R., Ashraf, M., Bakaityte, A., … Zukauskiene, R. (2020). Country-level and individual-level predictors of men’s support for gender equality in 42 countries. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 50(6), 1276–1291.

Brandt, M. J., Kuppens, T., Spears, R., Andrighetto, L., Autin, F., Babincak, P., Badea, C., Bae, J., Batruch, A., Becker, J. C., Bocian, K., Bodroza, B., Bourguignon, D., Bukowski, M., Butera, F., Butler, S. E., Chryssochoou, X., Conway, P., Crawford, J. T., … Zimmerman, J. L. (2020). Subjective status and perceived legitimacy across countries. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 50(5), 921–942.


Bukowski, M., de Lemus, S., Marzecova, A., Lupianez, J., & Goclowska, M. A. (2019). Different faces of (un)controllability: Control restoration modulates the efficiency of task switching. MOTIVATION AND EMOTION, 43(1), 12–34.

Bukowski, M., de Lemus, S., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., Willis, G. B., & Alburquerque, A. (2019). When lack of control enhances closeness to others: The case of unemployment and economic threat. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 49(6), 1144–1160.


de Lemus, S., Spears, R., Lupiáñez, J., Bukowski, M., & Moya, M. (2018). Automatic ingroup bias as resistance to traditional gender roles? Social Psychological Bulletin, 13(4), Article e29080.

Telga, M., de Lemus, S., Canadas, E., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., & Lupianez, J. (2018). Category-Based Learning About Deviant Outgroup Members Hinders Performance in Trust Decision Making. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, 9.

van Breen, J. A., Spears, R., Kuppens, T., & de Lemus, S. (2018). Subliminal Gender Stereotypes: Who Can Resist? PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN, 44(12), 1648–1663.

Navarro-Mantas, L; Estevan-Reina, L; de Lemus, S. 2018. Importancia del lenguaje inclusivo en la intervención para la reducción del sexismo. De la igualdad de género a la igualdad sexual y de género. (Coordinadores/as: Venegas, M., Chacón-Gordillo, P., y Fernández-Castilo, A.). Dykinson. pp.115-129.


Fritsche, I., Moya, M., Bukowski, M., Jugert, Ph., de Lemus, S., Decker, O., Valor-Segura, I., & Navarro-Carrillo, G. (2017). The Great Recession and group-based control: converting personal helplessness into social class ingroup trust and collective action. Journal of Social Issues, 73(1), 117-137.

de Lemus, S., Spears, R., van Breen, J., & Telga, M. (2017). COPING WITH IDENTITY THREATS TO GROUP AGENCY AS WELL AS GROUP VALUE Explicit and implicit routes to resistance. In M. Bukowski, I. Fritsche, A. Guinote, & M. Kofta (Eds.), COPING WITH LACK OF CONTROL IN A SOCIAL WORLD.

Leicht, C., Goclowska, M. A., Van Breen, J. A., de Lemus, S., & de Moura, G. R. (2017). Counter-Stereotypes and Feminism Promote Leadership Aspirations in Highly Identified Women. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, 8.

Jimenez-Moya, G., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., Spears, R., & de Lemus, S. (2017). Collective resistance despite complicity: High identifiers rise above the legitimization of disadvantage by the in-group. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 56(1), 103–124.

van Breen, J. A., Spears, R., Kuppens, T., & de Lemus, S. (2017). A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, 8.

Kulich, C., de Lemus, S., Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., & Lorenzi-Cioldi, F. (2017). Editorial: Multiple Identities Management: Effects on (of) Identification, Attitudes, Behavior and Well-Being. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, 8.

Bukowski, M., de Lemus, S., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., & Willis, G. B. (2017). Who’s to blame? Causal attributions of the economic crisis and personal control. GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS, 20(6), 909–923.


Jimenez-Moya, G., Spears, R., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., & de Lemus, S. (2015). By Any Means Necessary? When and Why Low Group Identification Paradoxically Predicts Radical Collective Action. JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 71(3), 517–535.

De Lemus, S., Montañés, P., Megías, J. L. & Moya, M. (2015). Development of gender prejudice from childhood to adulthood: a Spanish perspective. En S. Safdar & N. Kosakowska-Berezecka (Eds.), Psychology of Gender Through the Lens of Culture. Theories and Applications (pp. 219-238). Springer

de Lemus, S., & Stroebe, K. (2015). Achieving Social Change: A Matter of All for One? JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 71(3), 441–452.

Montañés, P., Megías, J. L., de Lemus, S. & Moya, M. (2015). Sexismo en la adolescencia: influencia de las primeras relaciones de pareja. Revista de Psicología Social: International Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 219-240.

de Lemus, S., Bukowski, M., Spears, R., & Telgal, M. (2015). Reactance to (or Acceptance of) Stereotypes Implicit and Explicit Responses to Group Identity Threat. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PSYCHOLOGIE-JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 223(4), 236–246.


de Lemus, S. de, Lupiáñez, J., Moya, M., & Bukowski, M. (2014). Men in the office, women in the kitchen? Contextual dependency of gender stereotypes activation in Spanish women. Sex Roles, 70, 468–478.

de Lemus, S., Navarro, L., Velasquez, M. J., Ryan, E., & Megias, J. L. (2014). From Sex to Gender: A University Intervention to Reduce Sexism in Argentina, Spain, and El Salvador. JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 70(4), 741–762.


Montañés, P., de Lemus, S., Megías, J. L., Moya, M. & Bohner, G. (2013). How attractive are sexist intimates to adolescents? The influence of sexist beliefs and relationship experience. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37(4), 494-506.

Zorza, J. P., Marino, J., de Lemus, S., & Acosta Mesas, A. (2013). Academic Performance and Social Competence of Adolescents: Predictions based on Effortful Control and Empathy. SPANISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 16.

de Lemus, S. de, Spears, R., Bukowski, M., Moya, M. & Lupiáñez, J. (2013). Reversing implicit gender stereotype activation as a function of exposure to traditional role relations. Social Psychology, 44(2), 109–116.

de Lemus, S., & Bukowski, M. (2013). When Interdependence Shapes Social Perception: Cooperation and Competition Moderate Implicit Gender Stereotyping. SPANISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 16.


Jimenez-Moya, G., de Lemus, S., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., & Spears, R. (2012). Dealing with powerlessness: The strategic use of ingroup stereotypes. REVISTA DE PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL, 27(3), 355–367.

Montañés, P., de Lemus, S., Bohner, G. Megías, J. L., Moya, M. & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of benevolent sexism from mothers to daughters and its relation to daughters’ academic performance and goals. Sex Roles, 66(7-8), 468-478.

De Lemus, S., Spears, R. & Moya, M. (2012). The power of a smile to move you: Complementary submissiveness in women’s posture as a function of gender salience and facial expression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1483-1497.


Loughnan, S., Kuppens, P., Allik, J., Balazs, K., de Lemus, S., Dumont, K., Gargurevich, R., Hidegkuti, I., Leidner, B., Matos, L., Park, J., Realo, A., Shi, J., Eduardo Sojo, V., Tong, Y., Vaes, J., Verduyn, P., Yeung, V., & Haslam, N. (2011). Economic Inequality Is Linked to Biased Self-Perception. PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 22(10), 1254–1258.

Kossowska, M., Trejtowicz, M., de Lemus, S., Bukowski, M., Van Hiel, A., & Goodwin, R. (2011). Relationships between right-wing authoritarianism, terrorism threat, and attitudes towards restrictions of civil rights: A comparison among four European countries. BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 102, 245–259.


de Lemus, S. de, Moya, M., & Glick, P. (2010). When contact correlates with prejudice: Romantic adolescents’ relationship experience predicts greater benevolent sexism in boys and hostile sexism in girls. Sex Roles, 63, 214–225.


Bukowski, M., Moya, M., & de Lemus, S. de (2009). Selective stereotype activation: The joint impact of interpersonal goals and task context. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 317-324.


de Lemus, S. de, Moya, M., Bukowski, M., & Lupiáñez, J. (2008). Activación automática de las dimensiones de competencia y sociabilidad en el caso de los estereotipos de género.  Psicológica, 29(2), 115-132.

de Lemus, S. de, Castillo, M., Moya, M., Padilla, J. L., & Ryan, E. (2008). Elaboración y validación del Inventario de Sexismo Ambivalente para adolescentes. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 8(2), 537-562.


Moya, M., Glick, P., Expósito, F., de Lemus, S., & Hart, J. (2007). It’s for your own good: Benevolent sexism and women’s reactions to protectively justified restrictions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(10), 1421-1434.


de Lemus, S., & Expósito, F. (2005). Nuevos retos para la Psicología Social: edadísmo y perspectiva de género. Pensamiento Psicológico, 1(4),33-52.