Guillermo Willis


I am Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Granada. I teach in the Faculty of Health Sciences (Social Psychology), in the Faculty of Psychology (Psychosocial Risks) and in the Master of Psychology of Social Intervention (Social Psychology of Inequality).

Main interests

  • Measurement of the perception of economic/wage inequality.
  • Cultural consequences of economic inequality and social class.
  • Consequences of power disparities.


Training and professional career


Associate Professor

Universidad de Granada


PhD in Psychology

Universidad de Granada


Master Degree in Psychology of Social Intervention

Universidad de Granada


Degree in Psychology

Universidad de Monterrey



Sánchez-Rodríguez, Á., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., & Willis, G. B. (2023). The economic inequality as normative information model (EINIM). European Review of Social Psychology, 1-41. 


Urbiola, A., Navas, M., Carmona, C., & Willis, G. B. (2022). Social Class also Matters: The Effects of Social Class, Ethnicity, and their Interaction on Prejudice and Discrimination Toward Roma. Race and Social Problems.

del Fresno-Díaz, A., Estevan-Reina, L., Sánchez-Rodríguez, A., Willis, G. B. (2022). Fighting inequalities in times of pandemic: The role of politicized identities and interdependent self-construal in coping with economic threat. Journal of Community and Applied Psychology.

García-Castro, J. D., García-Sánchez, E., Willis, G. B., Castillo, J. C., & Rodríguez-Bailón, R. (2022). Perceived economic inequality measures and their association with objective inequality and redistributive preferences. Social Psychology.

García-Sánchez, E., Correia, I., Pereira, C. R., Willis, G. B., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., & Vala, J. (2022). How fair is economic inequality? Belief in a just world and the legitimation of economic disparities in 27 European countries. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 48(3),

Willis G. B., García-Sánchez E., Sánchez-Rodríguez Á., García-Castro J. D., Rodríguez-Bailón R. (2022). The psychosocial effects of economic inequality depend on its perception. Nature Reviews Psychology.

Sánchez-Rodríguez, Á., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., & Willis, G. B. (2022). Economic inequality affects perceived normative values. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 25(1), 211–226.


Melita, D., Willis, G. B., & Rodríguez-Bailón, R. (2021). Economic inequality increases status anxiety through perceived contextual competitiveness. Frontiers in psychology, 12,

Quiroga, A., Moreno-Bella, E., Matamoros-Lima, J. A., & Willis, G. B. (2021). ‘Congratulations for your day’: Benevolent attitudes during March 8 in Mexico. Journal of Gender Studies. Advanced online publication.


Melita, D., Velandia-Morales, A., Iruela-Toro, D., Willis, G. B., & Rodríguez-Bailón, R. (2020). Spanish version of the Status Anxiety Scale (Versión española de la Escala de Ansiedad por el Estatus). International Journal of Social Psychology, 35(2), 342-369.

García-Castro, J. D., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., & Willis, G. B. (2020). Perceiving economic inequality in everyday life decreases tolerance to inequality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 90, 104019. 

Rodríguez-Bailón R., Sánchez-Rodríguez Á., García-Sánchez E., Petkanopoulou K., Willis G. B. (2020). Inequality is in the air: Contextual psychosocial effects of power and social class. Current Opinion in Psychology, 33, 120–125.

García-Sánchez, E., Osborne, D., Willis, G. B., & Rodríguez-Bailón, R. (2020). Attitudes towards redistribution and the interplay between perceptions and beliefs about inequality. British Journal of Social Psychology, 59(1), 111136.

Moreno-Bella, E., Willis, G. B., y Moya, M. (2020). ¿Se perciben como más masculinas las sociedades con mayor desigualdad económica? Ciencia Cognitiva, 14(1), 10-12.

Moya, M. & Willis, G. B. (2020). La Psicología Social ante el COVID-19: Número monográfico del International Journal of Social Psychology (Revista de Psicología Social). International Journal of Social Psychology, 35(3),590-599.

del Fresno-Díaz, Á., Sánchez-Rodríguez, Á. & Willis. G. B. (2020). I choose to be powerful: Economic inequality encourages preferences of power over status positions. The Social Science Journal, 1-18.

Urbiola, A, Willis, GB, Ruiz-Romero, J, Moya, M. (2020). Más allá del concepto político: los efectos psicosociales de la perspectiva multicultural (Beyond the political concept: the psychosocial effects of the multicultural perspective). Andamios, 44, 295-314.


García-Sánchez, E., Van der Toorn, J., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., & Willis, G. B. (2019). The Vicious Cycle of Economic Inequality: The Role of Ideology in Shaping the Relationship Between “What Is” and “What Ought to Be” in 41 Countries. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10(8), 991–1001.

García-Castro, J. D., Willis, G. B., & Rodríguez-Bailón, R. (2019). I know people who can and who cannot: A measure of the perception of economic inequality in everyday life. The Social Science Journal, 56(4), 599-608.

Sánchez‐Rodríguez, Á., Willis, G. B., Jetten, J., & Rodríguez‐Bailón, R. (2019). Economic inequality enhances inferences that the normative climate is individualistic and competitive. European Journal of Social Psychology, 49(6), 1114-1127.

Sánchez‐Rodríguez, Á., Willis, G. B., & Rodríguez‐Bailón, R. (2019). Economic and social distance: Perceived income inequality negatively predicts an interdependent self‐construal. International Journal of Psychology, 54(1), 117-125.

Sánchez-Rodríguez, Á., Jetten, J., Willis, G. B., & Rodríguez Bailón, R. M. (2019). High economic inequality makes us feel less wealthy. International Review of Social Psychology, 32(1), 111.

Moreno-Bella, E., Willis, G. B., & Moya, M. (2019). Economic inequality and masculinity-femininity: The prevailing perceived traits in higher unequal contexts are masculine. Frontiers in Psychology, section Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 1590.

Bukowski, M., de Lemus, S., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., Willis, G. B., & Alburquerque, A. (2019). When lack of control enhances closeness to others: The case of unemployment and economic threat. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 49(6), 1144–1160.


García-Sánchez, E., Willis, G. B., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., Palacio Sañudo, J., David Polo, J., & Rentería Pérez, E. (2018). Perceptions of economic inequality and support for redistribution: The role of existential and utopian standards. Social Justice Research, 31(4), 335-354.

Petkanopoulou, K., Sánchez-Rodríguez, Á., Willis, G. B., Chryssochoou, X., & Rodríguez-Bailón, R. (2018). Two Countries in Crisis: Economic Inequality in the EU and Disidentification With Europe in Spain and Greece. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(6), 888–906.

García-Sánchez, E., Willis, G. B., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., García-Castro, J. D., Palacio-Sañudo, J., Polo, J., & Rentería-Pérez, E. (2018). Perceptions of economic inequality in Colombian daily life: More than unequal distribution of economic resources. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1660.

Urbiola, A., Willis, G. B., Ruiz-Romero, J. & Moya, M. (2018). When implicit prejudice does not predict explicit prejudice: Spanish version of the Concern with Acting Prejudiced Scale. Revista de Psicología Social, 33(1), 51-80.

Argüello, C., Carretero-Dios, H., Willis, G. B. & Moya, M., (2018). Joking about ourselves: Effects of disparaging humor on ingroup stereotyping. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 21(4), 568-583.

Argüello, C., Carretero-Dios, H., Willis, G. B., & Moya, M. (2018). “It’s funny if group says so”: group norms moderates disparaging humor appreciation. Humor – International Journal of Humor Research, 31(3), 473-490.

Urbiola, A., Willis, G. B., Ruiz-Romero, J. & Moya, M. (2018). Does a multicultural perspective shape unbiased minds? The moderating role of outgroup threat. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,


Rodriguez‐Bailon, R., Bratanova, B., Willis, G. B., Lopez‐Rodriguez, L., Sturrock, A., & Loughnan, S. (2017). Social class and ideologies of inequality: How they uphold unequal societies. Journal of Social Issues, 73(1), 99-116.

Willis, G. B. & Moya, M. (2017). A more transparent science: Recommendations to increase the informative value of articles submitted to the Revista de Psicología Social / Una ciencia más transparente: recomendaciones para aumentar el valor informativo de los artículos enviados a la Revista de Psicología Social. Revista de Psicología Social, 32(3), 447-461.

Urbiola, A., Willis, G., Ruiz-Romero, J., Moya, M. & Esses, V. (2017). Valuing diversity in Spain and Canada: The role of multicultural ideology in intergroup attitudes and intentions to reduce inequalities. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 56, 25-38.

Bukowski, M., de Lemus, S., Rodriguez-Bailon, R., & Willis, G. B. (2017). Who’s to blame? Causal attributions of the economic crisis and personal control. GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS, 20(6), 909–923.


Willis, G. B., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., López-Rodríguez, L., & García-Sánchez, E. (2015). Legitimacy moderates the relation between perceived and ideal economic inequalities. Social Justice Research, 28, 493-508.

Espinoza Ornelas, R., Moya, M. & Willis, G. B. (2015). Influencia del miedo a la violación sobre el sexismo benévolo en una muestra de mujeres de Ciudad Juárez. Summa Psicológica, 22(1), 71-77.

Jiménez-Moya, G., Navarro-Mantas, L., Willis, G. B, Nonami, H. y Rodriguez- Bailón, R. (2015). Legitimidad y desempeño en el trabajo: cuando el derecho legitima y el merecimiento cualifica. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 31, pp 59-68.


Urbiola, A., Willis, G., Ruiz-Romero, J. & Moya, M. (2014). La reducción del prejuicio hacia la población gitana en la vida real: efectos de la visita a la exposición “Vidas Gitanas (Lungo Drom)”. Psychosocial Intervention, 23, 1-.


Moya, M. y Willis, G. B. (2011). Motivación social. En M. Moya y R. Rodríguez-Bailón (Coords.), Fundamentos de Psicología Social (pp. 147-166). Madrid: Pirámide.

Willis, G. B., Rodríguez-Bailón, R. y Moya, M. (2011). Los estereotipos y su contenido en España. En E. M. Techio y M. E. Oliveira (Coords.), Cultura e produçao das diferenças (pp. 107-135). Brasilia: TechnoPolitik Editora.


Willis, G. B., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., Moya, M., & Morales-Marente, E. (2010). Actitud hacia los futbolistas nacionalizados: El rol de la ideología y la conveniencia. Revista de Psicología Social, 25(3), 325-335.

Morales-Marente, E., Moya, M., Palacios, M.S. & Willis, G.B. (2010). The role of psycho-political variables in the reactions to March 11, terrorist attacks in Madrid (Spain). International Review of Social Psychology, 22(3/4), 127-155.